Perfume has become an intrinsic part of our daily lives. It is a part of our identity. Think of an ordinary day and all the different smell sensations , the zesty invigorating shower gel, liquid herbal incense the familiarity of a personal perfume, the fresh-washed smell of just washed clothes, the citrus tang of the dish-wash liquid, the relaxing night massage oil.
The fragrance in each product we use is taken for granted, though behind the scenes the whole industry strives constantly to improve fragrances. People are essentially visually oriented, and dependent on sight and sound to gather information from the surroundings .”Smell” however is an extraordinary sense, closely linked to the limbic system (seat of emotions and the functions of memory), แทงบอลโลก it has the power above all other senses to transport us, in an instant to times past or pervade our psyche to change our mood. The consumer is ahead of the scientist, however, now, more than ever before, the developed world is flooded with products to enhance every aspect of modern living. The consumer is spoilt for choice, but a choice must be made! Fragrance is an important part in the positioning of these products and is a feature that the consumer turns to automatically to underscore the promise. It is much more than a personal perfume. It is mysterious, ethereal, and elusive. Yet it is rooted solidly in the physical world and can therefore be examined scientifically.
The very word perfume is derived from the Latin perfumum, meaning ‘by’ or’through’smoke, as it was with the use of burning incense that the prayers of the ancients were transported to the heavens for the contemplations of the Gods. The use of fragrances developed within the four great centres of culture in China, sorno India, Egypt and Mesopotamia, and was extended in the elite societies of Greece, Palestine.Rome, Persia and Arabia. The great world religions of Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism and Zoroastroism employ fragrance in pursuance of their faiths. Thus, religious and pleasurable pursuits have been the main drives in the phenomenal growth of perfume usage throughout the centuries.
The Christian bible is chock-full of fragrance descriptions. The story of Jesus of Nazareth is populated by fragrant materials, from frankincense and myrrh, Reiseblog his gifts at birth, through to the use of spikenard to wash his feet during life and finally the use of myrrh in the binding sheets of his body after crucifixion. Through trade and cultivation, Palestine became a great source of aromatic wealth. The Greeks further developed the use of fragrances, not only in praise of their gods, but also for purely hedonistic purposes. The sciences of medicine and herbalism developed with Hippocrates and Theophrastus, whilst Alexander the Great, tutored by Aristotle, in the third century BC advanced the use of alchemy. The most used fragrances of the Greeks were rose, saffron, frankincense, myrrh, violets, spikenard, and cinnamon and cedar wood.
Meanwhile, in Rome, doll18 Pliny the Elder outlined a primitive method of condensation which collected oil from rosin on a bed of wool , and also made the first tentative experiments in chromatography. Throughout the ages, perfume has provided a pathway to happiness.
The first professional perfumers piled their in Capua, which became a trading centre of the industry. Perfume was used in abundance at the games both as a gift for the gods and as a mask for malodors of a bloodstained and offal-dappled arena. It is estimated that in the first century Romans were consuming nearly 3000 tones of frankincense and over 500 tones of the more expensive myrrh. Roman emperors used perfume to excess, instanced by Nero and his wife Poppeae, who had a kind of ‘perfumed plumbing’ in their palaces, with false ceilings designed to drop the flower petals onto dinner guests and scented doves which fragranced the air with perfumed wings. When Poppeae died, it was said of Nero that he burned a whole year’s supply of incense on her funeral pyre.
Empress Zoë, in the Christian stronghold of Constantinople, had employed court perfumers. From there the practice spread, with Normans strewing flowers and rushes onto the floors of castles and churches to keep the air fragrant and acceptable.
In a perverse day, the Black Death of 1347-1351 and subsequent pandemics were huge catalysts to the growth in usage of aromatic products, which had already shown signs of flourishing from Eastern alchemical practice. To counteract the odor of decay of dead bodies due to plague ,the people carried nosegays and small floral bouquets .Washing with water and enveloping the body in smoke or incense was felt to be an effective defense against Black death, and in addition torch bearers with brands of fragrant herbs walked ahead of important and rich personages.
Guilds of the supply of aroma products began to be formed between the 12 th and 13 th centuries. Related crafts included the London Guild of Pepperers and Spicers, and in 1268 the Glover’s Guild was recognized. King Henry I of France and England granted a heraldic shield to the Guild of Perfumers. A charter to glover perfumes had been granted by Philip Augustus of France as early as 1190.
Venice was an important centre for trade and commerce between Europe, the Middle East and the Orient, and became the funnel through which many spices and aromatic raw materials reached Europe, and its domination in trade for these products lasted for a few hundred years.
Distillation as an art was well known in the 11th century, but the first European treatise on distilling was written by the Catalonian Arnald of Villanova around 1310.Different types of distilled spirit were identified as aqua vitae(life), aqua vini(wine), for more info please visit these websites:-https://www.elektricienwijzer.nl/ https://wefirst.fr https://mitmunk.com/ and aqua gardens(burning water) and the book on the practice was translated into English from the German. Early processes of distillation used alembics, usually made of copper, iron or tin, since lead and silver had the characteristic of tainting the distillation vapour. Arnald of Villanova showed interest also in the sulphur baths of Montpellier,and it was around this time that the fragrance raw material and production centre of Grasse ,in the south of France, began to develop strongly. Meanwhile, Paracelsus(1493-1541)worked on distillation to separate the ‘essential ‘ from the ‘non-essential’ parts of a compound, and developed further the quinta essential theory of a fifth element ,involved in imbuing life. In 1573 Edward de vere ,Earl of Oxford ,brought Elizabeth I not only scented sachets, but also perfumed gloves and jerkins. Around this time the first books and manuscripts describing perfumery techniques surfaced, and court perfumers took the stage. A contemporary of Elizabeth, Catherine de Medici (1519-1589) traveled to France to marry HenryII,and in her entourage were two skilled artisans skilled in the crafts of perfumes and poisons. Diane de Poitiers, a rival of Medici, was said to dabble herself in philters, potions, perfumes and poisons.
Norstardamus, the personal astrologer of Catherine, was known to inhale smoke and incense as part of his preparations for prophesying. As a plgue doctor, Nostradamus used rose petal pills as a palliative and part herbal remedy for bad breath and cleaning teeth. The recipe of these pills included red roses picked before dawn, sawdust from fresh green cypress .iris, cloves, calamus, tiger lily and aloes. His second wife Anne Ponsard Gemelle was famed as a maker of herbalised perfumes.